what is Medial Malleolus and Posterior Malleolus?its causes and symptoms?

Medial Malleolus


A malleolus is the bony importance on each side of the human ankle.

Each leg is hold up by two bones, the tibia on the inner side (medial) of the leg and the fibula on the outer side (lateral) of the leg. The medial malleolus is the distinction on the inner side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the tibia. The lateral malleolus is the fame on the outer side of ankle, formed by the lower end of the fibula.

Medial malleolus:

The medial malleolus is establish at the foot end of the tibia. The medial outside of the lower extremity of tibia is extended downward to form a strong pyramidal process, compressed from without inward – the medial malleolus.

  • The medial surface of this process is convex and subcutaneous.
  • The on the side or particular surface is smooth and somewhat concave, and articulates with the talus.
  • The anterior border is uneven, for the attachment of the anterior fibers of the deltoid tendon of the ankle-joint.
  • The later border presents a broad groove, the malleolar sulcus, heading for obliquely downward and medially, and occasionally double; this sulcus lodges the tendons of the Tibialis subsequent and Flexor digitorum longus.
  • The summit of the medial malleolus is marked by a uneven depression behind, for the add-on of the deltoid ligament.

Ankle Fractures (Broken Ankle):

A broken ankle is also recognized as an ankle “fracture.” This means that one or more of the bones that make up the ankle joint are broken.

A fractured ankle can variety from a simple break in one bone, which may not stop you from walking, to more than a few fractures, which forces your ankle out of place and may need that you not put weight on it for a few months.

Simply put, the more bones that are broken, and the more unbalanced the ankle becomes. There may be ligaments injured as well. The ligaments of the ankle hold the ankle bones and joint in place.

Broken ankles have an effect on people of all ages. During the past 30 to 40 years, doctors have noted an enlarge in the number and harshness of broken ankles, due in part to an active, older population of “baby boomers.”


Three bones make up the ankle joint:

    1. Tibia – shinbone
    2. Fibula – smaller bone of the lower leg
    3. Talus – a small bone that sits between the heel bone (calcaneus) and the tibia and fibula

The tibia and fibula have exact parts that make up the ankle:

  1. Medial malleolus – inside part of the tibia
  2. Posterior malleolus – back part of the tibia
  3. Lateral malleolus – end of the fibula

Doctors categorize ankle fractures according to the area of bone that is broken. For example, a fracture at the end of the fibula is called a lateral malleolus fracture, or if both the tibia and fibula are broken, it is called a bimalleolar fracture.

Two joints are involved in ankle fractures:

  1. Ankle joint – where the tibia, fibula, and talus meet
  2. Syndesmosis joint – the joint among the tibia and fibula, which is held jointly by ligaments

Multiple ligaments help make the ankle joint stable.


  1. parody or rotating your ankle
  2. Rolling your ankle
  3. Tripping or lessening
  4. Impact during a car accident


Because a harsh ankle sprain can feel the same as a broken ankle, every ankle wound should be evaluate by a physician.

Common symptoms for a broken ankle include:

    1. instant and severe pain
    2. Swelling
    3. Bruising
    4. Tender to touch
    5. Cannot put any weight on the injured foot
    6. Deformity (“out of place”), mainly if the ankle joint is put out of place as well

medial malleolus pain.png

Medial Malleolus Pain

Ankle pain and ankle tendinitis facts:

    • The ankle is a “hinged” joint.
    • Ankle pain can be cause by injury or illness of the ankle joint.
    • The harshness of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (and can require surgical repair).
    • Tendinitis of the ankle can be cause by trauma from wound and overuse or provocative diseases.

How is the ankle designed, and what is the ankle’s function?

The ankle is a “hinged” joint able of moving the foot in two primary instructions: away from the body (plantar flexion) and in the direction of the body (dorsiflexion). Its anatomy is shaped by the gathering of three bones. The end of the shinbone of the leg (tibia) and a small bone in the leg (fibula) meet a large bone in the foot, called the talus, to form the ankle. The end of the shinbone (tibia) forms the inner piece of the ankle, while the end of the fibula forms the outer portion of the ankle. The hard, bony knob on each side of the ankle are called the malleoli. These provide constancy to the ankle joints, which function as weight-bearing joints for the body during standing and walking.

Ligaments on each side of the ankle also supply stability by tightly big and strong the outside of the ankle (lateral malleolus) with the lateral security ligaments and the inner portion of the ankle (medial malleolus) with the medial security ligaments. The ankle joint is bounded by a fibrous joint capsule. Tendons that attach the big muscle of the leg to the foot enfold around the ankle both from the front and behind. The large tendon (Achilles tendon) of the calf muscle passes at the back the ankle and attaches at the back of the heel. A large sinew of the leg muscle (posterior tibial tendon) passes behind the medial malleolus. The personal tendon passes behind the lateral malleolus to attach into the foot.

posterior malleolus.png

Posterior Malleolus

Posterior Malleolus Fracture:

A subsequent malleolus fracture is a fracture of the back of the tibia at the level of the ankle joint.

In most cases of subsequent malleolus fracture, the lateral malleolus (fibula) is also broken. This is because it shares ligament accessory with the posterior malleolus. There can also be a fracture of the medial malleolus.

Depending on how large the broken piece is, the back of the ankle may be unbalanced. Some studies have shown that if the piece is bigger than 25% of the ankle joint, the ankle becomes unbalanced and should be treated with surgery.

It is significant for a posterior malleolus fracture to be diagnose and treated correctly because of the risk for developing arthritis. The back of the tibia where the bone breaks is enclosed with cartilage. Cartilage is the smooth surface that lines a joint. If the broken piece of bone is larger than about 25% of your ankle, and is out of place more than a couple of millimeters, the cartilage surface will not heal correctly and the surface of the joint will not be smooth. This rough surface typically leads to enlarged and uneven pressure on the joint surface, which leads to cartilage injure and the development of arthritis.

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